Citation Rules


Use scientific references (Huehnergard 1987: 26; Petrie 1901: 230) in the text.

At the end, cite every bibliographical reference mentioned in the text (Bibliography:).


It must be pointed out that it is necessary to distinguish between a dash (–) and a hyphen (-). The dash is used e.g. for number sequences (5157), whereas the hyphen connects two words (e.g. BegelsbacherFischer, socalled).


(a) Monographs

Surname, name

Year Title of the monograph (in italics), place of issue: publisher [series (whole title, NOT abbreviation) and number].



Huehnergard, John

1987 Ugaritic Vocabulary in Syllabic Transcription, Atlanta: Scholars Press [Harvard Semitic Studies 32].


NOTE: It is necessary to cite the name of the author and the title exactly according to the original (capital and lower-case letters, dots, colons, commas etc.).


(b) Article in a magazine

Surname, name

Year Title of the article”, (comma after the quotation marks) magazine (whole title, NOT abbreviation) number, pp. xx.



Ryholt, Kim S. B.

1998 “Hoteibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla”, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 311, pp. 1–6.


(c) Article in proceedings or collective monograph

Surname, name

Year Title of the article”, in: name of the editor (surname, name) (ed., in the case of more editors use eds.). Title of the monograph, place of issue: publisher [series (whole title, NOT abbreviation) and number], pp. xx.



Hoffmeier, James K.

2004 “Aspects of Egyptian Foreign Policy in the 18th Dynasty in Western Asia and Nubia”, in: Knoppers, Gary N. Hirsch, Antoine (eds.). Egypt, Israel, and the Ancient Mediterranean World. Studies in Honor of Donald B. Redford, Leiden Boston: Brill [Probleme der Ägyptologie 20], pp. 121–141.

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